Data-driven methods towards learning the highly nonlinear inverse kinematics of tendon-driven surgical manipulators: XWJ_IJMRAS_IK_KNNR_GMR_ELM

Abstract
Background: Accurate motion control of flexible surgical manipulators is crucial in tissue manipulation tasks. The tendon-driven serpentine manipulator (TSM) is one of the most widely adopted flexible mechanisms in minimally invasive surgery because of its enhanced maneuverability in torturous environments. TSM, however, exhibits high nonlinearities and conventional analytical kinematics model is insufficient to achieve high accuracy. Methods: To account for the system nonlinearities, we applied a data driven approach to encode the system inverse kinematics. Three regression methods: extreme learning machine (ELM), Gaussian mixture regression (GMR) and K-nearest neighbors regression (KNNR) were implemented to learn a nonlinear mapping from the robot 3D position states to the control inputs. Results: The performance of the three algorithms was evaluated both in simulation and physical trajectory tracking experiments. KNNR performed the best in the tracking experiments, with the lowest RMSE of 2.1275 mm. Conclusions: The proposed inverse kinematics learning methods provide an alternative and efficient way to accurately model the tendon driven flexible manipulator.
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